Launch of the Montreal Declaration on Animal Exploitation @ On Zoom.

The Montreal Declaration Against Animal Exploitation is the result of the initiative of three researchers from the Groupe de recherche en environnement et animale (GRÉEA), affiliated with the Centre de recherche en éthique (CRÉ), in Montreal.

More than 400 academics from over 40 countries, specializing in moral and political philosophy, proclaim the fundamental unjust nature of animal exploitation, based on the current state of knowledge in their field of expertise.

« We condemn all practices that involve treating animals as things or commodities. To the extent that it involves unnecessary violence and harm, we declare that animal exploitation is unjust and morally indefensible. »

To attend the launch on Tuesday, October 4, 2022, with Martin GibertValéry Giroux and François Jaquet and watch the surprise video, it’s here.

This statement ethically echoes the Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness, stating that « converging evidence indicates that non-human animals possess the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological substrates of conscious states as well as the capacity to engage in intentional behavior. »

The signatories state that the main arguments used to support animal exploitation do not have the relevance required to justify it morally. This is particularly true of arguments based on the sophisticated cognitive abilities of humans.

« An individual’s ability to compose symphonies, to make advanced mathematical calculations, or to project into the distant future, however admirable, does not affect the consideration due to his or her interest in experiencing pleasure and freedom from pain. The interests of the more intelligent among us are not more important than the equivalent interests of the less intelligent. To hold otherwise would be to rank individuals according to a faculty that has no moral relevance. »

Although their work is rooted in diverse philosophical traditions, these scholars thus agree on the condemnation of speciesism and the need to profoundly transform our relationships with other animals by ending their exploitation. Such a position, once held by a few people particularly sensitive to the fate of animals, is now supported for the first time by hundreds of researchers who have dedicated their careers to ethical reflection.

The signatories are in favor of closing down slaughterhouses, ending fishing and developing plant-based agriculture, but they admit lucidly that, even if it is « the only collective horizon that is both realistic and just, » such a project will require « abandoning deep-seated speciesist habits and profoundly transforming some of our institutions.

In 2022, the Montreal Declaration on Animal Exploitation is certainly a milestone in the philosophically supported recognition of non-human animals.

If you are a researcher in moral or political philosophy, you can sign the Declaration here.

Signatories of the Montreal Declaration on Animal Exploitation

Last update October 9th, 2022 (535 signatories)

    1. Elisa Aaltola, Senior Research Fellow, University of Turku, Finland
    2. Cheryl Abbate, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
    3. Ruth Abbey, Professor and Researcher in Political Theory, Swinburne University
    4. Ralph Acampora, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Hofstra University
    5. Carol Adams, Author, The Sexual Politics of Meat, Independent scholar
    6. Aliya Affdal, Researcher in Bioethics, University of Montreal
    7. Reshef Agam-Segal, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Virginia Military Institute
    8. Karim Akerma, Doctor, Independant
    9. Fırat Akova, PhD, University of Warwick
    10. Frauke Albersmeier, Researcher in Animal Ethics, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany
    11. Sandra Alexander, Assistant Professor of Humanities, American University in Dubai
    12. Michael Allen, Professor, East Tennessee State University
    13. Ozan Altan Altinok, Post Doctoral Researcher in Philosophy and Ethics of Science in Practice, Center for Ethics and Law in Life Sciences, Leibniz University of Hannover
    14. Bertha Alvarez Manninen, Professor of Philosophy, Arizona State University
    15. Carlo Alvaro, Associate Professor of Philosophy, CUNY
    16. Mahesh Ananth, Professor of Philosophy, Indiana University 
    17. Dave Anctil, Chercheur en technophilosophie, Observatoire internationale sur l’IA et le numérique (OBVIA, Université de Laval)
    18. Emil Andersson, Postdoctoral Fellow, McGill University
    19. Jacy Reese Anthis, Sociologist, co-founder of the Sentience Institute, Sentience Institute
    20. Françoise Armengaud, Docteur en philosophie, Ex-Maître de conférences Université de Paris-Ouest-Nanterre
    21. Véronique Armstrong, Doctorante en éthique animale et environnementale, Université de Montréal
    22. Mike Ashfield, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Utah State University
    23. Michael Ashooh, Lecturer, University of Vermont
    24. Nikolaos Asproulis, Academic Associate, Volos Academy for Theological Studies, Greece
    25. Peter Atterton, Professor of Philosophy, San Diego State University
    26. Robin Attfield, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, Cardiff University
    27. Iván Darío Ávila Gaitán, Postdoctoral Researcher in Animal Ethics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia – ILECA – CIFECT
    28. Alisabeth Ayars, Assistant Professor, University of British Columbia
    29. Christiane Bailey, Coordinatrice Centre de justice sociale, Université Concordia
    30. Normand Baillargeon, Philosophie de l’Éducation, Le Devoir
    31. Liv Baker, Animal Behavior and Wellbeing Scientist, Hunter College, CUNY
    32. Jonathan Balcombe, Author on animal sentience, Self-affiliated
    33. Dylan Balfour, PhD Student in Philosophy, University of Edinburgh
    34. Isabel Balza, Senior Lecturer of Moral Philosophy, University of Jaén, Spain
    35. Anne Baril, Lecturer in Philosophy, Washington University in St. Louis
    36. Jeremy Barris, Professor in Philosophy, Marshall University
    37. Robert Bass, Adjunct Full Professor, University of North Carolina at Pembroke        
    38. Piers Beirne, Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Legal Studies and Author, University of Southern Maine, USA
    39. Sofia Belardinelli, PhD Student in Environmental Ethics, University of Naples Federico II 
    40. Jeremy Bendik-Keymer, Professor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University
    41. Amélie Benedikt, Professor in Ethics, Texas State University 
    42. Joshua Beneite-Martí, Profesor asociado de Filosofía, Universitat de València
    43. Rod Bennison, Independent Scholar, Chair and Founder Minding Animals International
    44. Paige Benton, Researcher in AI Ethics and Moral and Political Philosophy, University of Pretoria, South Africa
    45. Brian Berkey, Associate Professor, University of Pennsylvania
    46. John Berkman, Professor of Moral Theology, Regis College, University of Toronto
    47. Justin Bernstein, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
    48. Asha Bhandary, Political Philosopher / Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Iowa    
    49. Federico Bina, PhD Candidate in Moral Philosophy and Psychology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan 
    50. Faith Bjalobok, Professor of Philosophy, Duquesne University 
    51. Charlotte Blattner, Senior Lecturer and Researcher, Institute for Public Law, University of Bern, Switzerland
    52. Olle Blomberg, Researcher in practical Philosophy, University of Gothenburg
    53. Chris Bobonich, CI Lewis Professor of Philosophy, Stanford University
    54. Miranda Boldrini, Postdoctoral Researcher in Ethics, Université Saint-Louis, Bruxelles 
    55. Alcino Eduardo Bonella, Professor of Ethics, University of Uberlândia, Brazil
    56. Julia Borcherding, Associate Professor, University of Cambridge 
    57. Leonie N. Bossert, Animal ethicist, University of Tübingen
    58. Mylène Botbol-Baum, Professeure de philosophie et de bioéthique, Université catholique de Louvain
    59. Chiara Bottici, Associate Professor in Philosophy, The New School
    60. François Boucher, Chercheur en éthique et philosophie politique, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
    61. Michel Bourban, Chercheur en éthique et philosophie politique, University of Warwick
    62. Bernice Bovenkerk, Associate Professor of Animal and Environmental Ethics, Wageningen University 
    63. Philip Brey, Full Professor in Philosophy and Ethics of Technology, University of Twente
    64. Nicole Broadbent, Researcher on wildlife Ethics and conservation, University of Johannesburg
    65. David G. Brooks, Associate Professor (Honorary), University of Sydney
    66. Teya Brooks Pribac, Researcher in Animal Subjectivity, Independent
    67. Huub Brouwer, Assistant Professor of Ethics and Political Philosophy, Tilburg University
    68. Etienne Brown, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, San Jose State University
    69. Heather Browning, Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Southampton
    70. Eyja M. Brynjarsdottir, Professor of Philosophy, University of Iceland
    71. Florence Burgat, Directrice de recherche, Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement, France
    72. Nick Byrd, Philosopher and Scientist, Stevens Institute of Technology 
    73. Philip Cafaro, Professor of Philosophy, Colorado State University
    74. Matthew Calarco, Professor, California State University
    75. Cheshire Calhoun, Professor of Philosophy, Arizona State University
    76. Paco Calvo, Professor of Philosophy of Science, Universidad de Murcia
    77. Douglas Campbell, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Researcher of Human Altruism, University of Canterbury, New Zealand 
    78. Deborah Cao, Professor in Animal Law and Ethics, Griffith University, Australia
    79. Silvia Caprioglio Panizza, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Researcher in Ethics, University of Pardubice
    80. Adam Cardilini, Lecturer in Environmental Science, Deakin University
    81. Brian Carey, Assistant Professor in Political Theory, Durham University
    82. Erik Carlson, Professor in practical Philosophy, Uppsala University
    83. Petra Carlsson Redell, Professor, Stockholm School of Theology
    84. Paula Casal, Full Professor, ICREA and Pompeu Fabra University 
    85. Jodey Castricano, Professor Critical Animal Studies, University of British Columbia
    86. Clinton Castro, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Florida International University
    87. Amandine Catala, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)
    88. Lucius Caviola, Researcher in Moral Psychology, Harvard University
    89. Richard Yetter Chappell, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Miami
    90. Jonathan Chen, Instructor in Ethics/Philosophy, Sacramento State University
    91. Andrew Chignell, Professor in Human Values, Philosophy, and Religion, Princeton University
    92. Ryoa Chung, co-Directrice du Centre de recherche en éthique / professeure titulaire philosophie, Université de Montréal
    93. Chris Ciocchetti, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Centenary College of Louisiana
    94. Mich Ciurria, Crip Feminist Philosopher, University of Missouri-St. Louis 
    95. Stephen R.L. Clark, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Liverpool
    96. Dale Clark, Researcher in Ethics and Epistemology, University of South Dakota 
    97. Alasdair Cochrane, Professor of Political Theory, University of Sheffield
    98. Yolandi M. Coetser, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, North West University, South Africa
    99. Simon Coghlan, Senior Lecturer in AI and Digital Ethics, The University of Melbourne
    100. Zac Cogley, Researcher, Privately affiliated
    101. Mara-Daria Cojocaru, Doctor in Philosophy, Munich School of Philosophy
    102. Peter Cole, Associate Professor Indigenous and Ecojustice Education, University of British Columbia
    103. Raffaella Colombo, Researcher in Moral Philosophy, Università degli Studi di Milano
    104. Gary Comstock, Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate Professor, North Carolina State University
    105. Sophia Connell, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Birkbeck College, University of London
    106. Steve Cooke, Associate Professor of Political Theory, University of Leicester
    107. Guillaume Coqui, Maître de conférences en philosophie moderne et contemporaine, Université de Bourgogne
    108. Raymond Corbey, Professor of Philosophy of Science and Anthropology, Leiden University
    109. Frédéric Côté-Boudreau, Enseignant en philosophie au collégial, Collège de Maisonneuve
    110. Jackson Coy, Philosopher, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    111.        Alice Crary, University Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, New School for Social Research
    112. Luciano Carlos Cunha, PhD in Ethics and Political Philosophy, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
    113. Simon Cushing, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Michigan-Flint
    114. Jennifer Daigle, PhD Candidate in Philosophy, Yale University 
    115. Anya Daly, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy and Ethics, University of Tasmania
    116. Emilie Dardenne, Maîtresse de conférences en études anglophones et animal studies, Université Rennes 2
    117. Ben Davies, Research Fellow, University of Oxford
    118. Gabriele De Angelis, Researcher in Political Theory, NOVA University of Lisbon
    119. Ramiro De Ávila Peres, Researcher in Political Philosophy, NOVA University of Lisbon
    120. Brenda De Groot, Researcher in Primatology and Critical Animal Studies, Leiden University
    121. Javier de Lucas, Full Professor of Legal and Political Philosophy, Human Rights Institute, University of Valencia, Spain
    122. David DeGrazia, Elton Professor of Philosophy, George Washington University
    123. Konstantin Deininger, Doctoral Candidate in Animal Ethics and Moral Philosophy, University of Vienna 
    124. Nicolas Delon, Associate Professor of Philosophy and Environmental Studies, New College of Florida
    125. Lara Denis, Professor of Philosophy, Agnes Scott College
    126. Tristan Derham, Associate Researcher, University of Tasmania
    127. Evgeniy Derzhivitskyi, Philosophical Sciences, PhD, Associate Professor at the Department of Ethics, Saint Petersburg State University
    128. Philippe Devienne, Dr Philosophie, D.M.Vétérinaire, Paris-Sorbonne, ENV Alfort
    129. Annalisa Di Mauro, Research Fellow in Moral Philosophy, University of Genoa and member of EtApp (Laboratory for Applied Ethics Research)
    130. Jonathan H. Dickstein, Assistant Professor in Religion, Carleton College
    131. Paulette Dieterlen, Researcher at Institute on Philosophical Research, National University of Mexico
    132. Peter Dietsch, Professeur, University of Victoria
    133. Susan Dimock, Professor of Philosophy and University Professor, York University 
    134. Vitor Manuel Dinis Pereira, Researcher, LanCog, Centre of Philosophy, University of Lisbon
    135. Tyler Doggett, Professor of Philosophy, University of Vermont
    136. Daniel A. Dombrowski, Professor of Philosophy, Seattle University 
    137. Brianne Donaldson, Associate Professor, University of California, Irvine
    138. Alfonso Donoso, Associate Professor of Political Theory & Applied Ethics, P. Universidad Católica de Chile
    139. Kaila Draper, Professor of Philosophy, University of Delaware
    140. Marie-Josée Drolet, Full Professor and ethicist, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
    141. Jan Dutkiewicz, Postdoctoral Fellow, Swiss National Science Foundation
    142. Heather Eaton, Full Professor, Saint Paul University, Ottawa
    143. Rainer Ebert, International Research Associate, University of Dar es Salaam
    144. William Edelglass, Moral Philosophy, Emerson College and the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies
    145. Mylan Engel Jr, Professor of Philosophy, Northern Illinois University
    146. Erno Eskens, Philosopher, Independent
    147. Diego Exposito, PhD Candidate in Moral and Political Philosophy, The University of Sheffield
    148. Nadira Faber, Researcher in Psychology and Moral Philosophy, University of Oxford
    149. Tse Yip Fai, Researcher in AI Ethics, Princeton University, University Center for Human Values
    150. Arthur Falco de Lima, PhD Student in Animal Ethics, Federal University of Uberlândia
    151. Catia Faria, Assistant Professor / Researcher in Animal Ethics, Complutense University of Madrid
    152. Manuel Fasko, Researcher in History of Philosophy, University Basel
    153. Luc Faucher, Professeur, département de philosophie, Université du Québec à Montréal
    154. Andrew Fenton, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Dalhousie University
    155. Giuseppe Feola, Researcher in History of Ancient Philosophy and Science, University D’Annunzio, Italy 
    156. Laura Fernández, PhD in Communication, researcher in Critical Animal Studies, Centre for Animal Ethics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
    157. Juan Antonio Fernández Manzano, Researcher in Political Philosophy, Complutense University of Madrid
    158. Estelle Ferrarese, Professeure de philosophie morale et politique, Université de Picardie-Jules Verne
    159. Arianna Ferrari, Senior Researcher, Independent scholar
    160. Andrew Fiala, Professor of Philosophy, California State University, Fresno
    161. Carrie Figdor, Professor, University of Iowa
    162. Iskra Fileva, Professor of Philosophy, University of Colorado, Boulder
    163. Sascha Benjamin Fink, Junior Professor for NeuroPhilosophy, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
    164. Stephen Finlay, Professor of Moral Philosophy, Australian Catholic University
    165. Bob Fischer, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Texas State University
    166. Corrado Fizzarotti, Researcher in Environmental Ethics, National Research Council of Italy 
    167. Will Fleisher, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Georgetown University
    168. Leticia Flores Farfán, Researcher, National Autonomous University of Mexico
    169. Lisa Forsberg, Research Fellow, University of Oxford
    170. Björn Freter, Lecturer, SOAS University of London
    171. Katy Fulfer, Associate Professor of Philosophy and Gender & Social Justice, researcher in bioEthics and animal Ethics, University of Waterloo
    172. Elisa Galgut, Philosophy Professor, University of Cape Town
    173. Dmitri Gallow, Senior Research Fellow, Dianoia Institute of Philosophy, Australian Catholic University
    174. Harold Gamble, Emeritus Philosophy Teacher, Colorado State University 
    175. Andrea Gammon, Assistant Professor, Ethics & Philosophy of Technology, TU Delft
    176. Molly Gardner, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Florida
    177. Gabriel Garmendia Da Trindade, Lecturer in Philosophy, Federal Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS, campus Ibirubá)
    178. Aaron Garrett, Professor of Philosophy, Boston University
    179. Francisco Garrido, Profesor Titular de Universidad en Filosofía Moral, Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla / Universidad de Jaén
    180. Léon Gatien, Chercheur en éthique animale et philosophie décoloniale, Université de Sherbrooke 
    181. Benjamin Ghasemi, Postdoctoral Fellow, Colorado State University
    182. Martin Gibert, Chercheur en éthique de l’IA, Université de Montréal
    183. William Gildea, Researcher in Philosophy, University of Warwick
    184. Sven Gins, PhD Researcher, University of Groningen
    185. William-Philippe Girard, PhD Student, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières 
    186. Valéry Giroux, Chercheuse en éthique animale, Université de Montréal
    187. Ian Gold, Professor of Philosophy, McGill University
    188. Anahí Gabriela González, Doctora en Filosofía, Profesora Titular de Ética, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto Latinoamericano de Estudios Críticos Animales
    189. John Goris, PhD Candidate in Animal Ethics, Macquarie University
    190. Richard Greene, Professor of Philosophy, Weber State University
    191. Jennifer Greenwood, Honorary Research Fellow, University of Queensland
    192. Lori Gruen, William Griffin Professor of Philosophy/Coordinator of Wesleyan Animal Studies, Wesleyan University
    193. Allen Habib, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Calgary
    194. John Hadley, Senior Lecturer, Western Sydney University 
    195. Thilo Hagendorff, Researcher in AI Ethics, University of Tübingen
    196. Simon Hailwood, Professor of Philosophy, University of Liverpool 
    197. Ishtiyaque Haji, Professor of Philosophy, University of Calgary
    198. Austen Hall, PhD Candidate, Yale University 
    199. Melinda Hall, Associate Professor and Chair of Philosophy, Stetson University
    200. Matthew C. Halteman, Professor of Philosophy, Calvin University 
    201. Naïma Hamrouni, Professeure en philosophie, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
    202. Étienne Harnad, Professeur de psychologie, Université du Québec à Montréal
    203. Gerald Harrison, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Massey University
    204. Victoria Harrison, Full Professor and Head of Department, University of Macau
    205. Ronnie Hawkins, Environmental philosopher, University of Central Florida (retired)
    206. Richard Healey, Associate Lecturer, University College London
    207. Yogi Hendlin, Assistant Professor of Environmental Philosophy, Erasmus University Rotterdam
    208. Kristien Hens, Research Professor & Bioethics, University of Antwerp 
    209. Blake Hereth, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Massachusetts, Lowell
    210. Mark Herman, Lecturer in Philosophy, Arkansas State University
    211. Alejandro Herrera, Researcher in Animal and Environmental Ethics (retired), National University of Mexico
    212. Claudia Hogg-Blake, Humanities Teaching Fellow, University of Chicago
    213. Benjamin Hole, Contingent Faculty, Pacific University
    214. Daniel Hooley, Doctor, Capilano University
    215. Kai Horsthemke, Professor and Researcher in Animal Ethics and Animal Rights Education, University of the Witwatersrand 
    216. Oscar Horta, Faculty of Philosophy, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
    217. Chris Howard, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, McGill University
    218. Michael Huemer, Professor of Philosophy, University of Colorado
    219. Rebekah Humphreys, Specialist in animal Ethics, University of Wales Trinity St David
    220. James Humphries, Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Glasgow
    221. Mark Hunyadi, Professeur de philosophie morale et politique, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgique
    222. Ramona Ilea, Professor of Philosophy & Department Chair, Pacific University
    223. Patricia Illingworth, Professor, Northeastern University
    224. David Ingram, Professor of Philosophy, Loyola University Chicago
    225. Ruth Irwin, Professor of Education, RMIT University, Melbourne
    226. Alison M. Jaggar, Professor Emerita, Philosophy and Women & Gender Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder
    227. Pankaj Jain, Professor, FLAME University
    228. Simon James, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Durham University
    229. Andrew Jampol-Petzinger, Visiting Assistant Professor, Grand Valley State University
    230. François Jaquet, Lecturer in Philosophy, Université de Strasbourg
    231. Anja Jauernig, Professor of Philosophy, New York University
    232. Kathie Jenni, Professor of Philosophy, University of Redlands 
    233. Sofia M. I. Jeppsson, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Umeå University, Sweden
    234. Diane Jeske, Professor of Philosophy, University of Iowa 
    235. Alexander Jeuk, Independent author and researcher, 
    236. Kyle Johannsen, Philosophy Instructor, Trent University
    237. Jane Johnson, Field philosopher, Macquarie University
    238. L Syd Johnson, Associate Professor, SUNY Upstate Medical University
    239. Drew Johnson, Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Oslo
    240. Robert Jones, Associate Professor of Philosophy, California State University
    241. Jeff Jordan, Professor of Philosophy, University of Delaware
    242. Hrvoje Juric, Full Professor of Ethics and BioEthics, University of Zagreb
    243. Richard Kahn, Core Faculty in Education, Ed.D. in Educational and Professional Practice, Antioch University
    244. Gerasimos Kakoliris, Associate Professor in Contemporary Continental Philosophy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    245. Julius Kapembwa, Lecturer in Philosophy and Applied Ethics, University of Zambia
    246. Bhanuraj Kashyap, PhD Candidate, Macquarie University
    247. Joel Kassiola, Professor of Political Science, San Francisco State University
    248. Michael Kates, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Saint Joseph’s University
    249. Tristan Katz, Researcher in Animal and Environmental Ethics, University of Fribourg
    250. Jason Kawall, Carl Benton Straub ’58 Endowed Chair in Culture and the Environment, Colgate University
    251. Lisa Kemmerer, Professor Emeritus, Montana State University ; Tapestry
    252. Jozef Keulartz, Emeritus Professor Environmental Philosophy, Radboud University
    253. David Killoren, Assistant Professor, Koc University
    254. Roland Kipke, Researcher in Ethics and Political Philosophy, Bielefeld University
    255. Joshua Kissel, Instructor in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Phillips Academy Andover
    256. Philip Kitcher, John Dewey Professor of Philosophy Emeritus, Columbia University
    257. Andrew Knight, Professor of Animal Welfare and Ethics, University of Winchester 
    258. Daniel Z. Korman, Professor of Philosophy, University of California, Santa Barbara
    259. Petra Kosonen, Postdoctoral Researcher in Moral Philosophy and Decision Theory, University of Texas at Austin
    260. Magdalena Kozhevnikova, Researcher in Animal Ethics, Warsaw University
    261. Victor Kumar, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Boston University
    262. Visa A. J. Kurki, Associate Professor of Jurisprudence, University of Helsinki
    263. Olena Kushyna, PhD Student in Ethics, Centre for Ethics as Study in Human Value, University of Pardubice
    264. Oskari Kuusela, Associate Professor in Philosophy, University of East Anglia
    265. Mickaël Labbé, Maître de Conférences en Esthétique et Philosophie de l’Art, Université de Strasbourg
    266. Bernd Ladwig, Professor for Political Theory and Philosophy, Freie Universität Berlin
    267. Hugh LaFollette, Emeritus Cole Chair in Ethics and Professor of Philosophy, University of South Florida 
    268. Arto Laitinen, Professor of Social Philosophy, Tampere University 
    269. Andy Lamey, Associate Teaching Professor, University of California, San Diego
    270. Igor Larionov, Associate Professor, Philosophical Sciences, PhD, Head of Philosophical Anthropology Department, Saint Petersburg State University
    271. Renan Larue, Professeur de littérature, Université de Californie à Santa Barbara
    272. Noa Latham, Associate Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Calgary
    273. Megan Jane Laverty, Associate Professor of Philosophy and Education, Teachers College, Columbia University
    274. Andrew Lee, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Australian National University
    275. Jonathan Leighton, Author, Ethicist and Executive Director of the Organisation for the Prevention of Intense Suffering (OPIS)
    276. Ana Leite, Associate Professor in Social and Organisational Psychology, Durham University
    277. Noa Levin, Researcher in Political Philosophy, Centre Marc Bloch, Berlin
    278. Abigail Levin, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Niagara University 
    279. Neil Levy, Professor of Philosophy, Macquarie University
    280. Fabiola Leyton Donoso, Researcher in BioEthics, University of Barcelona
    281. Patrick Lin, Professor of Philosophy, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo 
    282. Erich Linder, PhD Candidate in Animal Ethics, University of Vienna 
    283. Andrew Linzey, The Revd Professor, Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics
    284. Clair Linzey, Deputy Director, Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics 
    285. David Lockwood, Researcher in Moral Philosophy, Cardiff University
    286. Farhana Loonat, Department Chair, Political Science and Philosophy, Skagit Valley College
    287. Mianna Lotz, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
    288. Michael Loughlin, Professor of Applied Philosophy, University of West London
    289. Hilda Nely Lucano Ramírez, Professor and Researcher in Animal Ethics and Law, Universidad de Guadalajara
    290. Simon Lumsden, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    291. Joe Lynch, Professor of Philosophy, California Polytechnic State University 
    292. David Lyreskog, Researcher in NeuroEthics, University of Oxford
    293. David Macauley, Associate Professor of Philosophy and Environmental Studies, Penn State Brandywine
    294. Joel MacClellan, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Loyola University New Orleans
    295. Colin Macleod, Professor, University of Victoria
    296. Jocelyn Maclure, Professeur de philosophie, McGill University
    297. Els Maeckelberghe, Associate Professor of Medical Ethics, University Medical Center Groningen
    298. Pablo Magaña, PhD Student, Pompeu Fabra University 
    299. Filip Maj, Lecturer, Macquarie University
    300. Elodie Malbois, Postdoctoral Researcher, Université de Genève
    301. Alejandra Mancilla, Professor of Philosophy, University of Oslo
    302. Moya Mapps, PhD Candidate, Yale Department of Philosophy
    303. Joel Marks, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, University of New Haven
    304. Angela Martin, Professeure assistante en éthique, Université de Bâle
    305. Alma Massaro, Lecturer in Animal Ethics, Genoa University
    306. Jeffrey M. Masson, Professor and Writer on animal emotions, University of Auckland
    307. Bruce Maxwell, Researcher in education, University of Montreal
    308. Joseph-Marie Mbonda, Professeur et chercheur en éthique, Université des Montagnes, Bangangté, Cameroun
    309. Joan McGregor, Professor of Philosophy, Arizona State University
    310. Leemon McHenry, Professor Emeritus, California State University, Northridge
    311. Erin McKenna, Professor of Philosophy, University of Oregon
    312. Jeff McMahan, Sekyra and White’s Professor of Moral Philosophy, University of Oxford
    313. Tristram McPherson, Professor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University
    314. Eva Meijer, Researcher in Political Philosophy, University of Amsterdam
    315. Garret Merriam, Associate Professor of Philosophy, California State University, Sacramento
    316. Debra Merskin, Professor, University of Oregon
    317. Heidi Mertes, Associate Professor in Medical Ethics, Ghent University
    318. Thaddeus Metz, Professor of Philosophy, University of Pretoria
    319. Letitia Meynell, Professor of Philosophy and Gender and Women’s Studies, Dalhousie University
    320. Ricardo Miguel, Researcher in Animal Ethics, University of Lisbon
    321. Emilian Mihailov, Researcher in Applied Ethics, University of Bucharest
    322. Josh Milburn, Lecturer in Political Philosophy and British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow, Loughborough University
    323. Becky Millar, Postdoctoral Researcher in Philosophy, University of York
    324. Kristie Miller, Professor, The University of Sydney
    325. Karen Mizell, Professor of Philosophy, Utah Valley University
    326. Madhavi Mohan, PhD Candidate in Philosophy, University of Western Ontario
    327. Mayahuel Mojarro, PhD student, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
    328. Susana Monsó, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia
    329. Macarena Montes, Researcher in Animal Ethics and Law, Pompeu Fabra University
    330. Nicolae Morar, Associate Professor of Environmental Studies and Philosophy, University of Oregon
    331. Alexander Morgan, Assistant Professor, Rice University
    332. Jeffrey Morgan, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of the Fraser Valley
    333. Brandon Morgan-Olsen, Advanced Lecturer in Philosophy, Loyola University Chicago
    334. Sébastien Motta, Maître de conférence en Philosophie et Logique, Aix-Marseille Université 
    335. Cristian Moyano Fernández, Postdoctoral Researcher in Environmental Ethics, Philosophy of Public Health and Food Ethics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
    336. Nicola Mulkeen, Lecturer in Political Philosophy, Newcastle University
    337. Nico Dario Müller, Postdoctoral Researcher in Ethics, University of Basel
    338. Josh Mund, Visiting Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Tulane University
    339. Hichem Naar, Researcher in Philosophy, University of Duisburg-Essen
    340. Carlos Naconecy, Researcher in Animal Ethics, Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics
    341. Christian Nadeau, Professeur en philosophie politique, Université de Montréal
    342. Eddy Nahmias, Professor of Philosophy and Chair, Georgia State University
    343. Yamikani Ndasauka, Doctor, University of Malawi
    344. Christina Nellist, President of Pan Orthodox Concern for Animals Charity, Fellow of Ferrater Mora Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, Oxford UK
    345. Nathan Nobis, Professor of Philosophy, Morehouse College
    346. John Nolt, Professor Emeritus, Logic and Environmental Ethics, University of Tennessee
    347. Alastair Norcross, Professor of Philosophy, University of Colorado Boulder
    348. Christopher Norris, Professor of Philosophy, Cardiff University
    349. Howard Nye, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Alberta
    350. Gary David O’Brien, DPhil Student in Philosophy, University of Oxford
    351. Tim Oakley, Researcher in Ethics, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
    352. Tzofit Ofengenden, Doctor, Tulane University
    353. Markku Oksanen, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Eastern Finland
    354. Gustavo Ortiz Millan, Researcher in animal Ethics, National Autonomous University of Mexico
    355. Maude Ouellette-Dube, Researcher in Ethics and Animal Ethics, University of Fribourg
    356. Christine Overall, Professor Emerita of Philosophy and University Research Chair, Queen’s University at Kingston
    357. Ibrahim Ozdemir, Professor of Philosophy and Ethics, President of Forum on Environmental Ethics, Uskudar University, Turkey
    358. Burkay Ozturk, Senior Lecturer of Philosophy, Texas State University
    359. Eze Paez, Beatriu de Pinós Postdoctoral Fellow, Pompeu Fabra University
    360. Patricia Palulis, Associate Professor, University of Ottawa
    361. Eleni Panagiotarakou, Researcher, Concordia University
    362. Juliette Parada Rincón, Research in Animal Ethics, Universidad Santo Tomás, Colombia
    363. Rachel Robison-Greene, Assistant Professor, Utah State University
    364. Stephen Pattison, Emeritus Professor of Religion, Ethics and Practice, University of Birmingham
    365. Wouter Peeters, Associate Professor of Global Ethics, University of Birmingham, UK
    366. Corine Pelluchon, Professeur de philosophie, Université Gustave Eiffel
    367. David Pena-Guzman, Associate Professor, SFSU
    368. Angie Pepper, Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Roehampton
    369. Eoin Perry, PhD Student in Philosophy of Science, University of Bristol
    370. Erik Persson, Researcher in applied Ethics, Lund University
    371. Ingmar Persson, Professor of Philosophy, University of Gothenburg 
    372. Keith Peterson, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Colby College
    373. Glen Pettigrove, Chair of Moral Philosophy, University of Glasgow
    374. Silvina Pezzetta, Researcher in Animal Law and Animal Ethics, CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires 
    375. Benedetta Piazzesi, Chercheuse en histoire et philosophie des sciences de la vie, CRH (EHESS, Paris)
    376. Jessica Pierce, Bioethicist, University of Colorado
    377. Alexis Piquemal, Enseignant, Lycée Gustave Eiffel et Université de Bourgogne
    378. Arina Pismenny, Associate Instructional Professor in Philosophy, University of Florida
    379. Nigel Pleasants, Senior lecturer in Philosophy and Sociology, University of Exeter
    380. Simone Pollo, Associate Professor of Moral Philosophy, Sapienza University of Rome
    381. Veronica Ponce, Philosophy teacher, Marianopolis College, Canada
    382. Elliot Porter, Lecturer in Bioethics, Brighton and Sussex Medical School
    383. Constantinos Proimos, Doctor of Philosophy and Assistant Professor of History and Theory of Architecture, University of Patras, Greece
    384. Evangelos Protopapadakis, Associate Professor in Applied Ethics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    385. Joëlle Proust, Directrice de recherche émérite au CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris
    386. Alicia Puleo, Senior Lecturer in Moral and Political Philosophy, University of Valladolid
    387. Stephen Puryear, Associate Professor of Philosophy, North Carolina State University
    388. Pierre-Yves Quiviger, Professeur de philosophie du droit, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne
    389. Ana Cristina Ramirez Barreto, Researcher in BioEthics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo
    390. Shyam Ranganathan, Faculty member, Department of Philosophy, and York Centre for Asian Research, York University
    391. Vardit Ravitsky, Professor, University of Montreal
    392. Hili Razinsky, Researcher, LanCog, Centre of Philosophy, University of Lisbon
    393. Paul Redding, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Sydney
    394. Amy Reed-Sandoval, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Nevada Las Vegas
    395. Philippe Reigné, Agrégé des facultés de droit, professeur titulaire de chaire, Conservatoire national des arts et métiers
    396. Tim Reijsoo, Philosopher, University of Amsterdam
    397. Kurt Remele, Professor Emeritus in Ethics, University of Graz
    398. Hannah Rheinz, Dr. Phil., Psychologist, Animal Ethicist, Independant
    399. Samuel Rickless, Professor of Philosophy, University of California San Diego
    400. Eduardo Rincón Higuera, Investigador en temas de Éticas Interespecie, Éticas Ecológicas y Ecosofías, Universidad Externado de Colombia, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
    401. Raffaele Rodogno, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Aarhus University
    402. Luke Roelofs, Researcher in Philosophy, New York University
    403. Chandler Rogers, Instructor, Boston College
    404. Wendy Rogers, Distinguished Professor in Clinical Ethics, Macquarie University, Sydney
    405. Simon Rosenqvist, Researcher in applied Ethics, Department of Global Political Studies, Malmö University
    406. Mark Rowlands, Professor and Chair, Department of Philosophy, University of Miami 
    407. Alain Roy, Professeur titulaire, Faculté de droit de l’Université de Montréal
    408. Ricardo Rozzi, Professor in Environmental Ethics and Biocultural Conservation, Subantarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, Department of Philosophy and Religion & Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, USA & Universidad de Magallanes, Chile 
    409. Rafael Ruiz de Lira, PhD Student in Philosophy, London School of Economics
    410. Colin P. Ruloff, Instructor of Philosophy, Kwantlen Polytechnic University
    411. Emma Ruttkamp, Professor of Philosophy, researcher in AI Ethics, University of Pretoria & Centre for AI Research
    412. Richard Ryder, PhD, Ex Cambridge, UK
    413. Benjamin Sachs-Cobbe, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, University of St. Andrews
    414. John Sanbonmatsu, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
    415. Jawara Sanford, Adjunct Associate Professor, Saint Louis University, Madrid Campus
    416. Steve Sapontzis, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, California State University, East Bay
    417. Işık Sarıhan, Postdoctoral Researcher in Philosophy, Independent
    418. Sahotra Sarkar, Professor of Philosophy and Integrative Biology, University of Texas
    419. Carl Saucier-Bouffard, Professeur, 
    420. Hanno Sauer, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Utrecht University 
    421. Lara Scaglia, Researcher in History of Philosophy and Ethics, Warsaw University
    422. Frank Schalow, Professor of Philosophy, University of New Orleans
    423. Anders Schinkel, Associate Professor of Philosophy of Education, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
    424. Andreas Schmidt, Associate Professor in Political Philosophy, University of Groningen
    425. Sebastian Schmidt, Postdoctoral researcher in Epistemology, University of Zurich
    426. Friederike Schmitz, Philosopher in Animal Ethics, Independent scholar
    427. Miriam Schoenfield, Associate Professor Philosophy, University of Texas
    428. Vanessa Scholes, Applied philosopher and learning designer, Open Polytechnic Kuratini Tuwhera
    429. Udo Schüklenk, Professor and Ontario Research Chair in Bioethics, Queen’s University
    430. Bart Schultz, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Director of the Civic Knowledge Project, University of Chicago
    431. Marcus Schultz-Bergin, Assistant College Lecturer in Philosophy, Cleveland State University 
    432. Lucia Schwarz, Teaching Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
    433. Jeff Sebo, Clinical Associate Professor of Environmental Studies, Affiliated Professor of BioEthics, Medical Ethics, Philosophy, and Law, and Director of the Animal Studies M.A. Program, New York University
    434. Jérôme Segal, Maître de conférences en histoire et philosophie des sciences, Sorbonne Université, Paris
    435. Elodie Serra, Doctorante en philosophie, Université de Nice
    436. Dunja Šešelja, Professor, Ruhr University Bochum
    437. Hilal Sezgin, Researcher in Animal Ethics, Lueneburg, Germany
    438. Steven Shakespeare, Professor of Continental Philosophy of Religion, Liverpool Hope University
    439. Hasana Sharp, Associate Professor of Philosophy, McGill University
    440. Yonatan Shemmer, Doctor, University of Sheffield
    441. Minna Shkul, Senior University Teacher in Feminist and Queer Studies, University of Sheffield
    442. Eli Shupe, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Texas at Arlington
    443. Dustin Sigsbee, Doctoral Candidate in Moral Philosophy, University of South Carolina
    444. Vlasta Sikimić, Researcher and Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Tübingen
    445. Mona Simion, Professor of Philosophy, University of Glasgow 
    446. Virginie Simoneau-Gilbert, Doctorante en philosophie, University of Oxford
    447. Peter Singer, Professor of BioEthics, Princeton University
    448. Doran Smolkin, Doctor of Philosophy, Kwantlen Polytechnic University
    449. Diana Soeira, Researcher in Philosophy & Economics and Public Policy, ISCTE-University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal
    450. Ayhan Sol, Professor, Middle East Technical University, Turkey
    451. John Sorenson, Professor, Brock University
    452. Friderike Spang, Senior Researcher in Political Theory, University of Lausanne
    453. Simon Springer, Professor of Human Geography, University of Newcastle
    454. Susanne Sreedhar, Professor of Philosophy, Boston University 
    455. Gary Steiner, Professor of Philosophy emeritus, Bucknell University
    456. Christian Straßer, Professor, Ruhr University Bochum
    457. Robert Streiffer, Professor of Philosophy and Bioethics, University of Wisconsin-Madison
    458. Peter Suber, Professor of Philosophy Emeritus, Earlham College
    459. Alison Suen, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Iona University 
    460. David Svolba, Associate Professor in Philosophy, Fitchburg State University
    461. Jac. Swart, Researcher, University of Groningen 
    462. Jason Swartwood, Instructor of Philosophy, Saint Paul College
    463. Andrey Sychev, Professor of Philosophy, Mordovia State University
    464. Marta Tafalla, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
    465. Zeynep Talay Turner, Professor, Istanbul Bilgi University
    466. Agnes Tam, Assistant Professor in Philosophy, University of Calgary
    467. Robert Tappan, Associate Professor of Religious Studies, Towson University
    468. Christine Tappolet, Professeure, Université de Montréal
    469. Aleksy Tarasenko-Struc, Clinical Ethics Fellow, Alden March BioEthics Institute, Albany Medical College
    470. Christian Tarsney, Researcher in Ethics and Decision Theory, University of Texas at Austin
    471. Angus Taylor, PhD, retired, University of Victoria
    472. Chloé Taylor, Professor, University of Alberta
    473. Larry Temkin, Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University
    474. Camille Ternier, Chercheuse postdoctorale en philosophie politique et économique, Université de Montréal, Centre de recherche en éthique de Montréal
    475. Areti Theofilopoulou, Researcher Fellow, Institute of Philosophy of the Czech Academy of Sciences
    476. Evan Thomas, Researcher in Ethics, Ohio State University
    477. Natalie Thomas, Adjunct Faculty, Philosophy and Fellow, Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, University of Guelph
    478. Kramer Thompson, PhD Candidate, The Australian National University 
    479. Elliott Thornley, PhD Student in Philosophy, University of Oxford
    480. Travis Timmerman, Associate Professor, and Chair of the Philosophy Department, Seton Hall University
    481. Oxana Timofeeva, Professor in Philosophy, European University at St. Petersburg
    482. Inken Titz, Researcher in AI Ethics, Ruhr-Universität Bochum
    483. Zorana Todorovic, Researcher in Animal Studies, University of Belgrade 
    484. Fiorella Tomassini, Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Groningen
    485. Mikel Torres, Adjunct Lecturer, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) 
    486. Ioannis Trisokkas, Assistant Professor, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    487. Jens Tuider, Ethicist, Independent
    488. Joseph Tuminello, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, McNeese State University
    489. Carla Turner, Philosopher of Animal Ethics, University of Pretoria, South Africa
    490. Richard Twine, Senior Lecturer in Social Sciences, Edge Hill University
    491. Gabriela Tymowski, Researcher in Animal Ethics, University of New Brunswick
    492. Peter Unger, Professor of Philosophy, New York University
    493. Peter Vallentyne, Professor, University of Missouri
    494. Kenneth Valpey, Researcher in Animal Ethics, Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies 
    495. Emnée Van Den Brandeler, PhD Candidate, University of Basel 
    496. Willem van der Deijl, Assistant Professor, Tilburg University
    497. Marie Van Loon, Research in epistemology, University of Zurich
    498. Pekka Vayrynen, Professor of Moral Philosophy, University of Leeds
    499. Ricardo Vega Ángeles, Doctoral Student in Moral Philosophy, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
    500. Angélica Velasco, Senior Lecturer in Moral and Political Philosophy, University of Valladolid, Spain
    501. Samantha Vice, Distinguished Professor in Philosophy, University of the Witwatersrand
    502. Elly Vintiadis, Associate Lecturer in Philosophy, The American College of Greece 
    503. Tatjana Višak, Researcher Animal Ethics, University of Mannheim
    504. Kristin Voigt, Associate Professor, McGill University
    505. Ilias Voiron, PhD Student in Philosophy and Environmental Humanities, Jean-Moulin Lyon 3 University & University of Fribourg 
    506. Rose Mary Volbrecht, Professor of Ethics Emeritus, Gonzaga University 
    507. Anabel von der Osten-Sacken, PhD Student in Animal Studies, Universität Hamburg 
    508. Kocku Von Stuckrad, Professor of Religious Studies, University of Groningen
    509. Kirstin Waldkoenig, Doctoral Student and Environmental Ethicist, University of Oregon
    510. Lisa Warden, Researcher, Animals & Society Research Initiative, University of Victoria
    511. Kari Weil, Professeur de Lettres, Wesleyan University
    512. Jennifer Welchman, Professor of Philosophy, University of Alberta
    513. Daniel Weltman, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, Ashoka University, India
    514. Michelle Westerlaken, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Cambridge (UK)
    515. Monique Whitaker, Lecturer in Philosophy, University of KwaZulu-Natal
    516. Markus Wild, Professor of Philosophy, University of Basel
    517. Hayden Wilkinson, Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Philosophy, University of Oxford
    518. Cynthia Willett, Professor, Emory University
    519. Andrew Williams, ICREA Research Professor, Pompeu Fabra University
    520. Sean Winkler, Lecturer of Philosophy, Loyola Marymount University/University of Redlands 
    521. Jason M. Wirth, Professor of Philosophy, Seattle University 
    522. Matthew Wiseman, PhD Student, University of Southern California
    523. Daniel Wodak, Associate Professor of Philosophy and of Law, University of Pennsylvania
    524. Alex Wolf-Root, Visiting Assistant Professor, The Ohio State University
    525. Matthew Wray Perry, PhD Student in Animal Rights, The University of Manchester 
    526. Laura Wright, Professor of English & Founder of the field of Vegan Studies, Western Carolina University
    527. Ewa Wyrębska-Đermanović, Researcher in Political Philosophy, University of Bonn 
    528. Anna Yaroslavtseva, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Novosibirsk State Medical University
    529. Roger Yates, Lecturer in Sociology, University College of Dublin
    530. Jay Zameska, Junior Research Fellow, University of Tartu, Estonia
    531. Tzachi Zamir, Professor, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    532. Sarah Zanaz, Doctorante en philosophie, Université de Strasbourg
    533. Miriam A. Zemanova, Research Associate, University of Fribourg, Switzerland 
    534. Rafael Ziegler, Associate Professor, HEC Montréal
    535. Anna C. Zielinska, Maîtresse de conférences en philosophie morale, juridique et politique, Université de Lorraine à Nancy